ASSESSMENT OF TOXICITY OF INDUSTRIAL WASTES USING CROP PLANT ASSAYS

Carmen Alice Teaca, Ruxanda Bodirlau

Abstract


Environmental pollution has a harmful action on bioresources, including agricultural crops. It is generated through many industrial activities such as mining, coal burning, chemical technology, cement production, pulp and paper industry, etc. The toxicity of different industrial wastes and heavy metals excess was evaluated using crop plant assays (germination and hydroponics seedlings growth tests). Experimental data regarding the germination process of wheat (from two cultivars) and rye seeds in the presence of industrial wastes (thermal power station ash, effluents from a pre-bleaching stage performed on a Kraft cellulose – chlorinated lignin products or chlorolignin), along with use of an excess of some heavy metals (Zn and Cu) are presented here. Relative seed germination, relative root elongation, and germination index (a factor of relative seed germination and relative root elongation) were determined. Relative root elongation and germination index were more sensitive indicators of toxicity than seed germination. The toxic effects were also evaluated in hydroponics experiments, the sensitivity of three crop plant species, namely Triticum aestivum L. (wheat), Secale cereale (rye), and Zea mays (corn) being compared. Physiological aspects, evidenced both by visual observation and biometric measurements (mean root, aerial part and plant length), as well as the cellulose and lignin content were examined.

Keywords


Keywords: Crop plant; Industrial wastes; Seed germination; Nutrient solutions; Hydroponics seedling tests; Biometric measurements

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