Chemical Composition of Lipophilic Extractives from Grey Alder (Alnus incana)

Oskars Bikovens, Liga Roze, Andrey Pranovich, Markku Reunanen, Galina Telysheva

Abstract


The chemical composition of the lipophilic extractives in the hexane extracts from grey alder bark, knotwood, and cones has been investigated by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The efficiency of two extraction methods was compared. The highest amount of lipophilic extractives (about 9% of o.d. material) was observed in grey alder cone, while the lowest (about 3%) was found in knotwood. The three different morphological parts of alder showed significant differences not only in the content but also in composition of extractives, namely fatty acids, triglycerides, and triterpenes. The main identified compounds were triterpenoids (lupen-3-one, lupeol, betulone, betulinol, and betulinic acid) in bark, and triglycerides in cones. The major group in knotwood was free fatty acids (mainly linoleic acid, 18:2).

Keywords


Grey alder; Bark; Cones; Knotwood; Lipophilic extractives; Lupane triterpenoids

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