Preparation and Characterization of Activated Carbon from Apple Waste by Microwave-Assisted Phosphoric Acid Activation: Application in Methylene Blue Adsorption

Roozbeh Hoseinzadeh Hesas, Arash Arami-Niya, Wan Mohd Ashri Wan Daud, J. N. Sahu

Abstract


Activated carbons (ACs) prepared from apple pulp and apple peel with phosphoric acid as an activation agent under microwave radiation were investigated. The effects of microwave radiation power and time on the adsorption capacities of the ACs were studied. The optimum AC preparation condition was identified by comparing the MB adsorption capacities of the produced ACs. The obtained results show that the microwave radiation power and time had strong effects on the adsorption capacities. Relative to conventional heating methods, microwave-prepared ACs showed higher BET surface areas and mesopore volumes after a shorter activation time due to differences in the type of heat transfer between these two methods. The N2 adsorption isotherms at −196°C and SEM and FTIR results were used to characterize the properties of the prepared ACs. The N2 adsorption results revealed BET surface areas of 1552 m2/g and 1103 m2/g for apple-peel and apple-pulp-based AC, respectively.

Keywords


Activated Carbon; Microwave; Chemical activation; Adsorption; Pore structure

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