Upgrading of Bio-oil in Supercritical Ethanol: Using Furfural and Acetic Acid as Model Compounds

Wen Chen, Zhongyang Luo, Yi Yang, Guoxiang Li, Jixiang Zhang, Qi Dang

Abstract


The upgrading of bio-oil in supercritical ethanol was investigated using furfural and acetic acid as model compounds with the aim of exploring the reaction pathways. The effects of catalysts, temperature, cold H2 pressure, and the presence of other compounds were studied. Based on products analysis, upgrading with Pt/HZSM-5 improved performance over Pd/HZSM-5 and Ru/HZSM-5. Moreover, the catalytic performance of Pt/HZSM-5 could be enhanced by adding Ni as a second metal. Complete conversion of acetic acid and 83.06% conversion of furfural were achieved at 320 °C and 1.0 MPa of cold H2 pressure. The presence of acetone was found to increase the conversion of furfural. Through gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis, the reaction pathways of furfural and acetic acid were clarified. It was concluded that it is possible to combine different reactions including esterification, hydrogenation, ring opening, isomerization, aldol condensation, and acetalization in supercritical ethanol.

Keywords


Bio-oil; Upgrading; Ethanol; Furfural; Catalysts

Full Text: PDF

Welcome to BioResources! This online, peer-reviewed journal is devoted to the science and engineering of biomaterials and chemicals from lignocellulosic sources for new end uses and new capabilities. The editors of BioResources would be very happy to assist you during the process of submitting or reviewing articles. Please note that logging in is required in order to submit or review articles. Martin A. Hubbe, (919) 513-3022, hubbe@ncsu.edu; Lucian A. Lucia, (919) 515-7707, lucian.lucia@gmail.com URLs: bioresourcesjournal.com; http://ncsu.edu/bioresources ISSN: 1930-2126