Banknote Paper Deterioration Factors: Circulation Simulator Method

Tetiana Kyrychok, Anatolii Shevchuk, Victor Nesterenko, Petro Kyrychok


The processes of banknote deterioration in circulation and the factors causing this wear have been analyzed to determine the main factors in the process of banknote deterioration in real life circulation and to ascertain which of these factors could be simulated in the process of simulated circulation. The factors that should be taken into consideration during simulated circulation are systematic mechanical and chemical influences on a banknote. The developed Circulation Simulator Method was used to evaluate Ukrainian hryvnia banknotes to obtain artificially deteriorated banknote samples whose optical properties, weight change, air permeability, bursting strength, and stiffness were within the range of corresponding parameter changes for bank notes in actual circulation. The designed method consisted of multiple mechanical damages to tested banknotes by means of centrifugally rotating them within a closed container containing a wearing agent in the presence of a soiling mixture, which imitates the typical composition of soil in banknote circulation within Eastern Europe. The proposed method can be used to determine the durability of materials and to develop manufacturing processes for banknote production.


Banknote; Wear; Banknote durability; Banknote paper; Simulated circulation; Circulation simulator method

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