Exploring of Agro Waste (Pineapple Leaf, Corn Stalk, and Napier Grass) by Chemical Composition and Morphological Study

Zawawi Daud, Mohd Zainuri Mohd Hatta, Angzzas Sari Mohd Kassim, Halizah Awang, Ashuvila Mohd Aripin

Abstract


Malaysia is a country that is a rich source of agricultural waste material. Three different crops were studied here, including pineapple (Ananas comosus) leaf, corn (Zea mays) stalk, and Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum). These crops are characterized as agricultural waste materials in Malaysia and have a high potential to be used as alternative fibers for the paper making industry. The objective of this work was to analyze the chemical composition of pineapple leaf, corn stalk, and Napier grass and to investigate the fiber morphology of these crops. The chemical components analyzed include the following: cellulose (Kurshner-Hoffner method), holocellulose (chlorination method), hemicellulose (chlorination method), ash content (TAPPI method T211-om-93), lignin content (TAPPI method T222-om-98), and soluble sodium hydroxide (TAPPI method T203-om-98). All handsheets morphologies were observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results indicated each crop has the potential for use as a fiber in paper making. SEM images indicated a condensed composition of the fiber structure. The observed chemical composition and morphology of these three crops indicate their suitability for use as fiber sources for the paper industry.

Keywords


Fiber; Napier grass; Pineapple leaf; Corn stalk; Composition; Green technology; Pulp and paper making

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