Biodegradation of Gallic Acid to Prepare Pyrogallol by Enterobacter aerogenes through Substrate Induction

Wenjun Li, Chengzhang Wang

Abstract


Pyrogallol, as an important chemical raw material and reagent, has been prepared by the decarboxylation reaction of gallic acid hydrolyzing tannin acid extracted from Chinese gall, but the decarboxylation reaction is known to cause serious environmental pollution. To obtain efficient strains to degrade gallic acid, a screening study was carried out to explore different strains and optimal fermentation conditions of single impact factors, as well as using response surface methodology. The antioxidant bioactivity of products containing pyrogallol in the fermentation medium was also estimated. The results indicated that Enterobacter aerogenes could degrade gallic acid into pyrogallol with 77.86% average yield under the optimal fermentation conditions of an inoculum size of 5%, substrate concentration of 0.32%, incubation period of 60 h, fermentation temperature of 32 °C, content of phosphate buffer at 25%, and an initial pH of 6.0 in fermentation medium. The products contained 66.5% pyrogallol and were tested for their antioxidant capacity. They proved to have stronger antioxidant capacity compared with ABTS, BHT, and even Vc. In conclusion, the study provided a simple, highly efficient method, superior to complex genetic engineering technologies, to degrade gallic acid into pyrogallol, suggesting the possibility of large-scale production in the future.

Keywords


Enterobacter aerogenes; Pyrogallol; Substrate induction; Response surface methodology; Hydrophilic antioxidant

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