The Optimization of the Water Footprint and Strength Properties of Handsheets by the Extreme Vertices Mixture Design

Ming Zhang, Dapeng Zhang, Yan Feng, Douyong Min, Hongqi Dai


Water footprint (WF) is widely used as a life cycle assessment (LCA) tool to assess the environmental impacts of water usage associated with forestry-based production. The calculations of WF are significantly influenced by the raw materials and the process. Some information is available on WF in the papermaking industry. However, there has been little consideration of the correlation between the WF and the properties of paper. Technically, the WF and the properties of paper are impacted by the raw materials. Generally, the ideal formula of raw materials used to make paper could decrease the WF while maintaining the properties of the paper. In the current study, the extreme vertices mixture design was used to optimize the WF and properties of the handsheet by the raw materials. The new model indicated that the WF of the handsheet was decreased significantly while the properties was maintained through the adjustment of the raw materials.


Water footprint; Extreme vertices mixture design; Strength properties; Handsheet

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Welcome to BioResources! This online, peer-reviewed journal is devoted to the science and engineering of biomaterials and chemicals from lignocellulosic sources for new end uses and new capabilities. The editors of BioResources would be very happy to assist you during the process of submitting or reviewing articles. Please note that logging in is required in order to submit or review articles. Martin A. Hubbe, (919) 513-3022,; Lucian A. Lucia, (919) 515-7707, URLs:; ISSN: 1930-2126