Adsorption Characteristics of Norfloxacin by Biochar Prepared by Cassava Dreg: Kinetics, Isotherms, and Thermodynamic Analysis

Dan Feng, Huamei Yu, Hui Deng, Fangze Li, Chengjun Ge


Biochars (BC) generated from biomass residues have been recognized as effective sorbents for organic compounds. In this study, biochars as adsorbents for the removal of norfloxacin (NOR) from aqueous solutions were evaluated. Biochars were prepared from cassava dregs at 350 °C, 450 °C, 550 °C, 650 °C, and 750 °C, respectively (labeled as BC350, BC450, BC550, BC650, and BC750). The results showed that the kinetic data were best fitted to the pseudo second-order model, indicating that the sorption was governed by the availability of sorption sites on the biochar surfaces rather than the NOR concentration in the solution. Sorption isotherms of NOR were well described by the Freundlich model, and the Freundlich coefficients (lgkF) increased with the pyrolysis temperature of biochars. Thermodynamic analysis indicated the feasibility and spontaneity of the NOR adsorption process. The NOR adsorption on BC450, BC550, BC650, and BC750 was an endothermic process, while an exothermic process occurred for BC350. FTIR studies further suggested that the adsorption mechanism was possibly attributable to H-bond and π-π interactions between NOR and biochars. Overall, this work constitutes a basis for further research considering the bioavailability and toxicity of antibiotics in the presence of biochar.


Biochar; Cassava dreg; Norfloxacin; Adsorption equilibrium; Kinetics; Thermodynamics

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