Integrated Production of Biofilm, Bioethanol, and Papermaking Pulp from Wheat Straw

Ayhan Tozluoğlu, Ömer Özyurek, Yalçıin Çöpür, Hasan Özdemir


Depending on the production method, traditional paper mills often utilize the black liquor by burning it for energy. Hemicelluloses extracted from the raw material prior to pulping could be utilized to produce biochemical fuels. The aim of this study was to pre-extract hemicelluloses from wheat straw by treating the biomass with hot water and alkali (NaOH or the combination NaOH+NaBH4) at varying temperatures and chemical concentrations, and also to integrate resulting solid material to produce pulp and to produce bioethanol and biodegradable films from extracted liquor consisting mostly of xylan. Optimum hot water (135 °C) and alkali pre-extractions (16.7% NaOH at 50 C) removed 16.5% and 33.6% of the xylan from the straw structure, respectively. The liquid portion of the hot water (135 C) and alkali (16.7% NaOH at 50 C) pre-extracted oven-dry (OD) straw yielded up to 7.79% and 6.81% (g/100 g soluble material) ethanol. Good-quality biodegradable films were produced when some gluten and nanocellulose was added to the extracted xylan. Although the hot water pre-extracted pulp yield was slightly lower, its physical and mechanical pulp properties were comparable to those of the corresponding conventional soda pulp.


Wheat straw; Pre-extraction; NaBH4; Ethanol; Pulping; Biodegradable film

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Welcome to BioResources! This online, peer-reviewed journal is devoted to the science and engineering of biomaterials and chemicals from lignocellulosic sources for new end uses and new capabilities. The editors of BioResources would be very happy to assist you during the process of submitting or reviewing articles. Please note that logging in is required in order to submit or review articles. Martin A. Hubbe, (919) 513-3022,; Lucian A. Lucia, (919) 515-7707, URLs:; ISSN: 1930-2126