Improving Paper Mechanical Properties Using Silica-modified Ground Calcium Carbonate as Filler

Ana F. Lourenço, José A. F. Gamelas, João Sequeira, Paulo J. Ferreira, José L. Velho


The ability to increase the filler content of paper without significantly sacrificing its mechanical strength is of high interest for papermakers. In this work, three samples of ground calcium carbonate (GCC), differing in size and in brightness, modified with silica via the sol-gel method, were used as fillers in papermaking. Handsheets were produced using a eucalyptus kraft pulp furnish and with a filler amount near 20%. It was found that not only were the strength properties of the handsheets produced with the modified GCCs always significantly better than those obtained with the unmodified GCCs (e.g., the tensile index exhibited improvements of 16 to 20%), but bulk also was increased (by 7 to 13%). Some decreases in the light scattering and opacity values were noted when using the modified GCC, but the brightness was roughly the same. The enhanced fiber-to-filler bonding may be attributed to the hydrogen bonding between the cellulosic fibers and the hydroxyl groups of the silica coating the calcium carbonate particles.


Calcium carbonate; Silica; Paper filler; Strength properties

Full Text: PDF

Welcome to BioResources! This online, peer-reviewed journal is devoted to the science and engineering of biomaterials and chemicals from lignocellulosic sources for new end uses and new capabilities. The editors of BioResources would be very happy to assist you during the process of submitting or reviewing articles. Please note that logging in is required in order to submit or review articles. Martin A. Hubbe, (919) 513-3022,; Lucian A. Lucia, (919) 515-7707, URLs:; ISSN: 1930-2126