Topochemical Correlation between Carbohydrates and Lignin in Eucommia ulmoides Cell Wall from Tissue to Cell Level

Kexia Jin, Heshuai Cui, Xinge Liu, Jianfeng Ma


The efficient conversion of biomass into biofuels is closely associated with the topochemistry of the cell wall. In this study, the topochemical correlation between carbohydrates and lignin in the Eucommia ulmoides cell wall was investigated in situ by confocal Raman microscopy. The carbohydrates and lignin were mainly collocated in the secondary wall of the fiber, ray parenchyma, and vessel in E. ulmoides. High carbohydrates were associated with low lignin or vice versa, indicating that a high concentration of carbohydrates leads to a drop in the degree of lignification. Furthermore, the band intensity ratio of S- and G-lignin to carbohydrates (I1333/I2889 and I1274/I2889) in morphologically distinct regions of fiber was calculated. In accordance with the wet chemical analysis, a higher ratio of lignin to carbohydrates was observed within the middle layer of the 3-year-old E. ulmoides fiber secondary wall. The results potentially extend the current understanding of the carbohydrate and lignin topochemistry in woody biomass and may facilitate an efficient wood bioconversion process in future biorefineries.


Raman imaging; Topochemical correlation; Carbohydrates; Lignin

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Welcome to BioResources! This online, peer-reviewed journal is devoted to the science and engineering of biomaterials and chemicals from lignocellulosic sources for new end uses and new capabilities. The editors of BioResources would be very happy to assist you during the process of submitting or reviewing articles. Please note that logging in is required in order to submit or review articles. Martin A. Hubbe, (919) 513-3022,; Lucian A. Lucia, (919) 515-7707, URLs:; ISSN: 1930-2126