A Study on the Curing Characteristics, Tensile, Fatigue, and Morphological Properties of Alkali-Treated Palm Kernel Shell-Filled Natural Rubber Composites

Shuhairiah Daud, Hanafi Ismail, Azhar Abu Bakar


Effects of alkali treatment of palm kernel shells (PKS) were investigated relative to curing characteristics, tensile properties, and fatigue of PKS-filled natural rubber (NR) composites. The PKS powder was subjected to alkali treatment using 5% sodium hydroxide. The treated PKS was incorporated into the NR composites during compounding, with the concentrations of the composites ranging from 5 to 20 phr. The properties of treated PKS-filled NR composites were compared with those of untreated PKS-filled NR composites. The cure times, scorch times, and maximum torque values were all lower for alkali-treated PKS/NR composites compared with those of untreated PKS/NR composites. Tensile strength and elongation at break were higher for treated PKS composites, while the moduli (M100 and M300) were lower than those of untreated PKS/NR composites. The fatigue tests for treated PKS/NR composites also showed higher fatigue values than the untreated PKS/NR composites. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the higher tensile strength, elongation at break, and fatigue values of treated PKS/NR composites were due to the removal of hemicellulose and lignin in PKS fillers. This removal increased in the surface roughness of the filler and led to improved rubber-filler adhesion.


Palm kernel shell; Alkali treatment; Tensile strength; Cure time; Fatigue; FTIR

Full Text: PDF

Welcome to BioResources! This online, peer-reviewed journal is devoted to the science and engineering of biomaterials and chemicals from lignocellulosic sources for new end uses and new capabilities. The editors of BioResources would be very happy to assist you during the process of submitting or reviewing articles. Please note that logging in is required in order to submit or review articles. Martin A. Hubbe, (919) 513-3022, hubbe@ncsu.edu; Lucian A. Lucia, (919) 515-7707, lucian.lucia@gmail.com URLs: bioresourcesjournal.com; http://ncsu.edu/bioresources ISSN: 1930-2126