Influence of Urea-formaldehyde Adhesive Modification with Beech Bark on Chosen Properties of Plywood

Ivan Ružiak, Rastislav Igaz, Lubos Krišťák, Roman Réh, Jozef Mitterpach, Alena Očkajová, Martin Kučerka


The influence of beech bark concentrations as filler in urea-formaldehyde (UF) adhesives was investigated relative to the composite forming process and selected properties of final 5-layer beech plywood. Beech bark was used as filler to lower the wood processing waste production and decrease formaldehyde emissions. A combination of UF adhesives filled with different beech bark concentrations as the adhesive was used. Three different concentrations of beech bark, 15 wt.%, 20 wt.%, and 25 wt.% were used in the experiment. Urea-formaldehyde adhesive filled with 20 wt.% technical flour was used as a reference sample. The effect of the filler was studied via its temperature profile during pressing, mechanical properties in bending, water absorption, thickness swelling, and formaldehyde emissions after pressing. The time needed to reach the temperature between the beech veneers, at least 105 °C, which was equal to the final temperature filler-adhesive-wood matrix cross-linking, was also investigated during the pressing process. The measurements of the free formaldehyde emissions showed that for samples with non-zero bark concentrations there was a decrease of formaldehyde emissions by at least 46%.


Beech bark; Beech plywood; Physical and Mechanical properties; UF adhesive modification

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