Green Pulp Mill: Renewable Alternatives to Fossil Fuels in Lime Kiln Operations

Katja Kuparinen, Esa Vakkilainen

Abstract


Pulp mills are making increasing efforts to reduce fossil fuel use and carbon dioxide emissions. Lime kilns, which are typically fired with fuel oil or natural gas, use the most fossil fuel in modern pulp mills. A modern kraft pulp mill can be fossil fuel-free during normal operation if fossil-based lime kiln fuels are substituted with renewable alternatives. This study compared the production and use of various renewable fuels, namely, hydrogen, producer gas, torrefied biomass, lignin, and pulverized biomass, in lime kiln operations in a 1.5 Mt/a kraft pulp mill in South America to define the techno-economic optimum for the fossil fuel-free operation of the pulp mill. The attractiveness of each of the concepts was dependent on local conditions and especially the prices of fossil fuels and electricity. The results showed, however, that feasible options exist for the replacement of fossil fuels in lime kiln operations.

Keywords


Fossil fuel replacement; Pulp mill; Lime kiln; Water electrolysis; Gasification; Torrefaction; Biocoal; Lignin; Wood residue

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Welcome to BioResources! This online, peer-reviewed journal is devoted to the science and engineering of biomaterials and chemicals from lignocellulosic sources for new end uses and new capabilities. The editors of BioResources would be very happy to assist you during the process of submitting or reviewing articles. Please note that logging in is required in order to submit or review articles. Martin A. Hubbe, (919) 513-3022, hubbe@ncsu.edu; Lucian A. Lucia, (919) 515-7707, lucian.lucia@gmail.com URLs: bioresourcesjournal.com; http://ncsu.edu/bioresources ISSN: 1930-2126