Homogeneous Esterification Mechanism of Bagasse Modified with Phthalic Anhydride in Ionic Liquid, Part 3: Structural Transformation of Lignins

Huihui Wang, Xueqin Zhang, Yi Wei, Aiping Zhang, Chuanfu Liu, Runcang Sun


The phthalation of bagasse was investigated comparatively with the three main isolated components in 1-allyl-3-methylidazium chloride (AmimCl) to reveal the reaction behavior of bagasse. In the first two parts, the detailed changes of cellulosic and hemicellulosic components in bagasse were elucidated during phthalation. In Part 3, the phthalation of lignins was performed in AmimCl with various ratios of phthalic anhydride/lignins from 10 to 50 mmol/g. The phthalation degree ranged from 41.1% to 68.8% for the phthalated lignins. The aliphatic hydroxyls of lignins were more easily phthalated than the phenolic hydroxyls as revealed by 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and two dimensional (2D) heteronuclear single quantum correlation (HSQC) confirmed the attachment of phthaloyl group onto lignins. Severe degradation of lignin macromolecules was found at high ratios of phthalic anhydride/lignins (30 to 50 mmol/g) by gel permeation chromatography (GPC) analysis. These results provide a detailed understanding of reaction behaviors of lignins during bagasse phthalation, which are beneficial to prepare composites based on phthalated lignocellulose with better properties.


Lignins; Bagasse; Phthalic anhydride; Ionic liquid; 2D HSQC NMR; 31P NMR

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