Bending Forces at the Proportionality Limit and the Maximum – Technological Innovations for Better Performance in Wood Processing Companies

Tomáš Svoboda, Zuzana Gaffová, Rastislav Rajnoha, Anna Šatanová, Richard Kminiak


Knowledge of the force required to overcome deformation at the proportionality limit, maximum limit, and their ratio, as well as knowledge of the effect of selected factors on the listed characteristics in bending stress, have both scientific and practical significance. They form a foundation for designing tools for bending and determine the stress that products and their parts can be exposed to during use. This study analyzes the effect of selected factors on the force at the proportionality limit (FE), the force at the maximum limit (FP), and the ratio of these two characteristics (FE/FP). This study examined the effect of the wood species (WS) (Fagus sylvatica L. and Populus tremula L.), material thickness (MT) (4 mm, 6 mm, 10 mm, and 18 mm), degree of densification (DOD) (0%, 10%, and 20%), and the number of cycles (NOC) (0 or 10,000), as well as their combined interaction, on the monitored characteristics. The results contribute to the advancement of knowledge necessary for the study and development of new materials with specific properties for their intended use. The results can improve the innovative potential of wood processing companies and increase their performance and competitiveness in the market.


Technological and product innovations; Cyclic loading; Laminated wood; Force at the proportionality limit; Force at the maximum limit; Force ratio; Wood-processing industry performance

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Welcome to BioResources! This online, peer-reviewed journal is devoted to the science and engineering of biomaterials and chemicals from lignocellulosic sources for new end uses and new capabilities. The editors of BioResources would be very happy to assist you during the process of submitting or reviewing articles. Please note that logging in is required in order to submit or review articles. Martin A. Hubbe, (919) 513-3022,; Lucian A. Lucia, (919) 515-7707, URLs:; ISSN: 1930-2126