Effect of Starch Addition on Properties of Citric Acid-bonded Particleboard Made from Bamboo

Ragil Widyorini, Kenji Umemura, Aprian Retno Kusumaningtyas, Tibertius Agus Prayitno


Citric acid has been investigated as a good adhesive for particleboard. This research studied the effect of starch addition on the properties of citric acid-bonded particleboard. Starch provides hydroxyl groups that can react with the carboxyl group in citric acid. Three kinds of starches were used in this research, i.e. corn, ganyong (Canna edulis Ker-Gawl), and garut (Maranta arundinacea L.) starches. Petung (Dendrocalamus sp.) bamboo particles were used as raw material. The mixture ratios of citric acid/starch were set at 100/0, 87.5/12.5, and 75/25 (w/w), while the resin content was set at 30 wt.% based on air-dried particles. The boards were then manufactured under pressing conditions of 180 °C for 10 min. Based on the physical and mechanical properties of the particleboards, it was concluded that the addition of starch tended to enhance the mechanical properties, while decreasing the physical properties of the boards. An addition of 12.5 wt.% starch in citric acid was the optimum resin ratio for manufacturing bamboo particleboard. Maranta and canna starches provided higher mechanical properties compared to corn starch. A FTIR analysis clearly showed that the intensity of carbonyl groups increased with increasing of starch content, which indicated that crosslinking between starch and citric acid occurred.


Citric acid; Starch; Bamboo; Starch types; Adhesive composition; Bonding mechanism; Particleboard

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