Hydrochar Derived from Anaerobic Solid Digestates of Swine Manure and Rice Straw: A Potential Recyclable Material

Hongmei Jin, Enhui Sun, Yueding Xu, Ruihua Guo, Mengjie Zheng, Hongying Huang, Songhe Zhang


Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is an efficient conversion process that treats solid digestates from anaerobic digestion plants and converts it into valuable solid products. In this study, digestates of swine manure (DS_M) and rice straw (DS_S) were HTC-treated at 190 °C with biomass-to-water ratios of 1:4 and 1:9. The hydrochars were characterized physically and chemically to elucidate their potential as a valuable resource. The hydrochars from the solid digestates were acidic, and the dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved organic nitrogen (DON), and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area (SBET) were significantly (P < 0.05) higher compared with that of the feedstocks and pyrochars. Mesopores were dominant in the hydrochars, where the pores had slit-type holes and a stratified structure. The hydrochars possessed more O functional groups and aromatic C=C and C-H band than the feedstocks and pyrochars. The hydrochars derived from solid digestates were better as a solid fuel because of their combustion property. The increase in the crystallinity of the hydrochars enhanced their stability. The hydrochars produced from the DS_M were more acidic than those from the DS_S. The HTCDS_S had a better adsorptive effect on pollutants than the HTCDS_M because of the higher SBET and optimal functional groups.


Hydrochar; Solid digestates; Swine manure; Rice straws

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