Effect of Tenon Size on Static Front to Back Loading Performance of Wooden Chairs in Comparison with Acceptable Design Loads

Halil Kılıç, Ali Kasal, Tolga Kuşkun, Mehmet Acar, Yusuf Ziya Erdil


The effects of tenon size were investigated relative to the front to back loading performance of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) chairs. Forty-five chair frames were constructed with mortise and tenon joints with 9 tenon sizes. Joints were assembled with a 65% solids polyvinyl acetate (PVAc) adhesive. The front to back loading performance of chairs was compared to the acceptable design load levels given in the American Library Association (ALA) specifications. Chair frames were structurally analyzed with the Finite Element Method (FEM) to obtain the moment acting on each joint under loading. The results indicated that a chair became stronger as either tenon width or length increased, but was most affected by its length. As a result of structural analyses, front leg to side rail and back leg to side rail joints carried approximately 73% of the total moment that was induced under the front to back loading. According to the comparison results with acceptable design loads, chairs constructed with 40 mm × 50 mm tenons could meet light service (domestic usage), while the chairs constructed with 50 mm × 50 mm tenons could meet medium service. The chairs constructed with other sizes could not meet any acceptable levels, and thus need reinforcement.


Chair; Mortise and tenon joints; Front to back loading; Finite element method (FEM); American Library Association (ALA)

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