Fire Properties of Pinus densiflora Utilizing Fire-retardant Chemicals Based on Borate and Phosphorus (II) – Thermal and Gas Emission Characteristics

Hyun Jeong Seo, Nam Kyun Kim, Jeong Min Jo, Min Chul Lee


The pyrolysis characteristics of untreated pine and fire retardant-treated pine (Pinus densiflora) were measured by using thermogravimetric analysis according to the ASTM E1131-08 (2012) regulation. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to monitor changes in chemical groups of fire-retardant treated specimens before and after the combustion test. In addition, the microstructures of the untreated specimen and the fire-retardant treated specimen after cone calorimeter testing were determined by scanning electron microscopy. Combustion gas toxicity was evaluated according to the test method described in Naval Engineering Standard 713 (1990). The emitted combustion gases of all specimens were carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxide (NOX), and acrylonitrile. The thermal decomposition rate was reduced by about one-third that of the fire-retardant treated specimen compared to the reduction rate of the untreated specimen. These results are useful for guiding the safe utilization of fire retardant-treated wood and wood-based materials for building applications.


Fire retardant-treated wood; Thermal stability; Fire safety; Hazardous gases; Korean Pinus densiflora

Full Text: PDF

Welcome to BioResources! This online, peer-reviewed journal is devoted to the science and engineering of biomaterials and chemicals from lignocellulosic sources for new end uses and new capabilities. The editors of BioResources would be very happy to assist you during the process of submitting or reviewing articles. Please note that logging in is required in order to submit or review articles. Martin A. Hubbe, (919) 513-3022,; Lucian A. Lucia, (919) 515-7707, URLs:; ISSN: 1930-2126