Synthesis, Curing, and Properties of an Epoxy Resin Derived from Gallic Acid

Antonella Tarzia, Jeanette Montanaro, Michele Casiello, Cosimo Annese, Angelo Nacci, Alfonso Maffezzoli


An aromatic epoxy monomer, formed by glycidylation of gallic acid, was crosslinked by adopting different curing agents to obtain bio-based, crosslinked resins with suitable engineering properties. Specifically, tri- and tetra-glycidyl ether of gallic acid (GEGA) were obtained using a two-step synthesis. These bio-based monomers were cured in the following three epoxy formulations: a stiff cycloaliphatic primary amine, isophorone diamine, and a flexible polypropylene oxide amine (Jeffamine D-230). Next, the homopolymerization of GEGA was studied using an ionic initiator, N,N-dimethylbenzylamine, and a complex curing mechanism highlighted by calorimetric and mass spectra analysis. Calorimetric and rheological measurements were used to compare the curing behavior of the studied GEGA-based formulations. Mechanical properties of the gallic acid-based epoxy resins were comparable with those of standard epoxy resin formulations, based on di-glycidyl ether of bisphenol A. Thermogravimetric analysis of cured samples showed a relevant char content at high temperatures.


Gallic acid; Epoxy resin; Curing; Thermal analysis; Mechanical properties; Bio-based polymer

Full Text: PDF

Welcome to BioResources! This online, peer-reviewed journal is devoted to the science and engineering of biomaterials and chemicals from lignocellulosic sources for new end uses and new capabilities. The editors of BioResources would be very happy to assist you during the process of submitting or reviewing articles. Please note that logging in is required in order to submit or review articles. Martin A. Hubbe, (919) 513-3022,; Lucian A. Lucia, (919) 515-7707, URLs:; ISSN: 1930-2126