Safety Evaluation of Deinked Pulp Containing Offset Thermochromic Inks

Sonja Jamnicki Hanzer, Mirela Rožić, Marina Vukoje, Mirela Jukić, Antonija Galić


Evaluating the safety of thermochromic inks for offset lithography in deinked pulp samples is a major area of investigation. In this study, three offset inks were analyzed – one that dries by absorption and two that dry by oxypolymerization of vegetable oils. Inks were printed separately on strips of white uncoated paper, and the prints were recycled by chemical deinking flotation. Thermochromic inks, handsheets, filter pads, and process waters obtained from deinking were tested for the presence of heavy metals, while concentrations of bisphenol A (BPA), total organic compounds, and antimicrobial agents were examined in handsheets and filter pads. The concentration of heavy metals cations was determined from ashes of undeinked and deinked pulp handsheets as well as from ashes of blank paper, flotation froth, and process water filtrates. BPA originates from thermochromic inks, and a 50% reduction of BPA was noticed in the samples after flotation. Considering the results, deinked pulp is undesirable due to the presence of BPA. Despite the presence of BPA, there was no release of toxic components from deinked pulp.


Recycled paper; Thermochromic inks; Heavy metals; Bisphenol A; TOC; Antimicrobial properties

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