Interference from Knots, Wave Propagation Direction, and Effect of Juvenile and Reaction Wood on Velocities in Ultrasound Tomography

Stella Stopa Assis Palma, Raquel Goncalves, Alex Julio Trinca, Candida Pereira Costa, Mariana Nagle dos Reis, Guilherme Alonso Martins


Acoustic tomography is based on the velocity variation inside the inspected element. However, wood is heterogeneous and anisotropic, which causes natural velocity variations. In wood, the great challenge to apply this technology is to interpret and differentiate the natural variations of the material from those caused by deterioration. This study aimed to evaluate the interference caused by knots, the wave propagation direction, and the effect of juvenile and reaction wood on the velocities determined via ultrasonic tomography. The tests were performed using 40 disks of Pinus elliottii. From the results it was concluded that intrinsic orthotropy of the wood was reflected in the wave propagation on the disks with radial velocities greater than the tangential ones, higher velocities in the knot zones, and different velocities in the zones of compression and opposition wood. In the measurements using the diffraction mesh, the edge velocities (tangential direction with the maximum angle from the radial direction) were always lower than all of the other velocities in the disk. More significant variations in the velocity were obtained in the juvenile wood. These results contribute to quantifying some interferences associated with tomography images, such that the misinterpretation can be minimized.


Juvenile wood; Reaction wood; Knots

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Welcome to BioResources! This online, peer-reviewed journal is devoted to the science and engineering of biomaterials and chemicals from lignocellulosic sources for new end uses and new capabilities. The editors of BioResources would be very happy to assist you during the process of submitting or reviewing articles. Please note that logging in is required in order to submit or review articles. Martin A. Hubbe, (919) 513-3022,; Lucian A. Lucia, (919) 515-7707, URLs:; ISSN: 1930-2126