Comparative Phytochemical Constituents of Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) Leaves, Fruits, Stem Barks, and Wood Branches Grown in Egypt using GC-MS Method Coupled with Multivariate Statistical Approaches

Mohamed Zaky Zayed, Aimin Wu, Sobhy Mohamed Sallam

Abstract


This work, for the first time, identified the phytochemical constituents of leaves, fruits, stem barks, and wood branches extracted from the tree pruning wastes of Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit. grown in Egypt, showing 49, 29, 34, and 27 phytocomponents, respectively, as assayed by gas chromatograph-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) analysis. The major components of leaves were 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, mono(2-ethylhexyl) ester (17.7%), betulin (15.7%), lupeol (14.7%), androstan-17-one,3-ethyl-3-hydroxy-, (5à)- (12.3%), 9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid, methyl ester, (Z,Z,Z)- (11.6%), betamethasone (9.7%), and β-sitosterol (9.1%). The major phytocomponents of fruits were β-sitosterol (55.7%), 3beta-hydroxy-5-cholen-24-oic acid (48.7%), 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, mono(2-ethylhexyl) ester (42.9%), lupeol (29.3%), betulin (15.8%), stigmasterol (12.8%), and campesterol (7.6%). The major phytocomponents of stem barks were 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, diisooctyl ester (65.7%), β-sitosterol (27.2%), betulin (22.1%), lupeol (21.1%), and 9,12-octadecadienoic acid (Z,Z)-, methyl ester (8.8%). Wood branches contained β-sitosterol (60.1%), 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, mono(2-ethylhexyl) ester (47.2%), lupeol (22.5%), campesterol (15.6%), and stigmasterol (14.1%). Most of the identified compounds have been reported to possess important biological activities, such as antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, anti-arthritic, antioxidant, and antidiabetic activities. The four constituents of L. leucocephala were statistically independent in these phytocomponents. The phytocomponents in five solvents were mixed in describing the four constituents. These constituents of L. leucocephala are potential bioresources for phytopharmaceutics.

Keywords


Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.); Phytochemical constituents; GC-MS; Principal component analysis

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