Lignin Modifications and Perspectives towards Applications of Phenolic Foams: A Review

Carolina Londoño Zuluaga, Jing Du, Hou-Min Chang, Hasan Jameel, Ronalds Wilfredo Gonzalez


Lignin is a complex natural polymer and by-product of the pulp and paper industry. Currently, the increasing interest in bio-based products has motivated the search for alternative renewable feedstocks that can sustainably replace synthetic polymers. Because of the phenolic functionalities of lignin, this natural polymer has attracted interest for application in biomaterials. Among various products, polymeric foams stand out as a potential product in which lignin incorporation has resulted in improved mechanical and thermal properties. This paper reviews the state of lignin foam development, with emphasis placed on phenol-lignin types.


Lignin; Phenol; Formaldehyde; Polymeric foams; Phenolic foam

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Welcome to BioResources! This online, peer-reviewed journal is devoted to the science and engineering of biomaterials and chemicals from lignocellulosic sources for new end uses and new capabilities. The editors of BioResources would be very happy to assist you during the process of submitting or reviewing articles. Please note that logging in is required in order to submit or review articles. Martin A. Hubbe, (919) 513-3022,; Lucian A. Lucia, (919) 515-7707, URLs:; ISSN: 1930-2126