Preparation, Properties, and Mechanism of Anionic and Cationic Cellulose Nanocrystals/Waterborne Polyurethane Composite Films
Keywords:Cellulose nanocrystals, Waterborne polyurethane, Microstructure, Mechanical properties, Optical properties
Three kinds of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) were added into waterborne polyurethane (WPU) and nanocomposite films that were prepared by solution casting. The influence of different ionic function groups on microstructure and properties of composite films was investigated. Compared with sulfated CNCs (SCNCs) and TEMPO oxidized CNCs (TOCNCs), FE-SEM images showed that cationized CNCs (CaCNCs) had better dispersion in composite films. The thermal decomposition of these composite films was delayed by 15 °C compared with pure WPU film. The tensile strength and fracture work of CaCNC/WPU composite film increased by 11.9% and 8.4%, respectively. The light transmittance of CaCNC/WPU composite film was highest among the 3 composite films, but its oxygen permeability was the lowest. In sum, the composite film with CaCNCs had optimal strength, toughness, light transmittance, and oxygen barrier properties, which is consistent with good compatibility of the two components and densest structure observed in SEM. There may be an ionic attraction and hydrogen bonds of CaCNCs and WPU in the composite film. The composite films are expected to have applications in food packaging, furniture coatings, and biomedical fields.