Preparation and Characterization of Cellulose Nanocrystals from Paper Mulberry Fibers
Keywords:Bast fiber, Paper mulberry, Cellulose nanocrystal, Yield, Aspect ratio
The applicability of paper mulberry fiber (PM-FB), which is bast fiber, for manufacturing cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) with high-yield was investigated. The PM-FB and hardwood bleached kraft pulp (Hw-BKP) were hydrolyzed under different sulfuric acid concentrations, reaction times, and reaction temperatures. The dependence of the CNC yield on the hydrolysis conditions and crystallinity of the raw materials was analyzed. The functional groups of the CNCs and their zeta potentials were determined. The fiber length and width of the individual CNCs were determined by transmission electron microscopy image analysis. The PM-FB showed a higher crystallinity of 86.8% compared to that of Hw-BKP and exhibited a high CNC yield of 55% under strong hydrolysis conditions. The sulfate group was introduced into the CNCs, which increased their negative charge. The fiber width of PM-FB-based CNCs (PM-CNCs) was larger than that of Hw-BKP-based CNCs (Hw-CNCs), and the aspect ratio ranged from 29.0 to 12.2 depending on the hydrolysis conditions. The yield of PM-CNCs was higher than that of Hw-CNCs under the same hydrolysis conditions. In addition, both CNCs exhibited similar quality. Therefore, PM-FB is a promising raw material for efficient CNC manufacturing.