Use of Hemp Waste for the Development of Mycelium-grown Matrix Biocomposites: A Concise Bibliographic Review


  • Sivasubramanian Palanisamy Department of Mechanical Engineering, P T R College of Engineering & Technology, Thanapandian Nagar, Madurai – Tirumangalam Road, Madurai, 625008, Tamilnadu, India
  • Thulasi Mani Murugesan Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Carleton University, 1125 Colonel By Drive, Ottawa, ON K1S 5B6, Canada
  • Murugesan Palaniappan Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, Imam Mohammad Ibn Saud Islamic University, Riyadh 11432, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
  • Carlo Santulli School of Science and Technology, Università di Camerino, Camerino, Italy
  • Nadir Ayrilmis Department of Wood Mechanics and Technology, Forestry Faculty, Istanbul University-Cerrahpasa, Bahcekoy, Sariyer, 34473, Istanbul, Turkey


Bio-blocks, Agricultural substrates, Polystyrene foam replacement, Natural fibers, Straw, Sawdust


Mycelium from fungi can serve as the matrix or as a self-grown binder in a biocomposite. The reinforcing component may consist of various combinations of agro-based waste in short fiber or powder form. The complexity of their development is linked not only to the selection of the substrate, but also to the growth conditions of the mycelial material and its consolidation in a final form by the temperature increase that takes place. These materials have initially been proposed as a replacement for polystyrene foams, and the characterization is concentrated on compression performance and acoustic and thermal insulation properties. The present review concentrates on substrates that originated from the large productive system based on hemp (shives or hurds, waste fibers, and mats). Attention is paid to the performance obtained and to the amount of waste that is possibly employed to serve as the substrate.






Scholarly Review