Visual and Machine Strength Gradings of Scots and Red Pine Structural Timber Pieces from Türkiye



Visual strength grading, Machine grading, Local and global modulus of elasticity, Scots pine, Red pine


Scots (Pinus sylvestris L.) and red pine (Pinus brutia Ten.) structural timbers (540 pieces) from Türkiye were first visually graded according to TS 1265 (2012). Then, non-destructive tests were conducted using vibration and time of flight (ToF) methods, followed by destructive tests on a four-point bending test setup according to EN 408 (2012). The vibration method showed a higher correlation than ToF with strength and stiffness. The dynamic modulus of elasticity (MOEd) obtained by the vibration method was 12.3% and 15.4% lower in Scots and red pine, respectively, compared to the ToF method. Mechanical testing determined local MOE was 14% and 15% higher than global MOE for Scots and red pine, respectively. An alternative formula to the existing conversion formula in EN 384 (2018) was derived. The average bending strength of red pine was 7% higher than Scots pine. For visual strength grading, local and global MOE in Scots pine, class 1, 2, and 3 structural timbers were assigned to C35, C27, and C22, respectively. Red pine was assigned to C40, C27, and C24 for local MOE and C35, C24, and C22 for global MOE. In machine strength grading, the grade combination was C40-C30-C22-C16-R for both species. The best results were achieved in settings where vibration method and local MOE were used together. Machine strength grading achieved higher efficiency than visual strength grading.







Research Article or Brief Communication