Curing Characterisation of Spruce Tannin-based Foams using the Advanced Isoconversional Method

Matjaž Čop, Marie Pierre Laborie, Antonio Pizzi, Milan Sernek


The curing kinetics of foam prepared from the tannin of spruce tree bark was investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and the advanced isoconversional method. An analysis of the formulations with differing amounts of components (furfuryl alcohol, glycerol, tannin, and a catalyst) showed that curing was delayed with increasing proportions of glycerol or tannins. An optimum amount of the catalyst constituent was also found during the study. The curing of the foam system was accelerated with increasing temperatures. Finally, the advanced isoconversional method, based on the model-free kinetic algorithm developed by Vyazovkin, appeared to be an appropriate model for the characterisation of the curing kinetics of tannin-based foams.


Cure kinetics; Differential scanning calorimetry; Foam; Spruce bark tannin

Full Text:


Welcome to BioResources! This online, peer-reviewed journal is devoted to the science and engineering of biomaterials and chemicals from lignocellulosic sources for new end uses and new capabilities. The editors of BioResources would be very happy to assist you during the process of submitting or reviewing articles. Please note that logging in is required in order to submit or review articles. Martin A. Hubbe, (919) 513-3022,; Lucian A. Lucia, (919) 515-7707, URLs:; ISSN: 1930-2126