Characterization of Lignocellulosic Biomass as Raw Material for the Production of Porous Carbon-based Materials

Saptadi Darmawan, Nyoman Jaya Wistara, Gustan Pari, Akhirudin Maddu, Wasrin Syafii


Lignocellulosic biomass is a potential raw material that can be used in the synthesis (manufacture) of porous carbon stuffs. The properties of such porous carbon products are affected by the species of the raw material and the manufacturing process, among other things. This paper scrutinizes the related characteristics of lignocellulosic raw materials that indicate potential for the production of porous carbon. Three species were used: pine (Pinus merkusii) wood, mangium (Acacia mangium) wood, and candlenut (Aleurites moluccana) shells, representing softwoods, hardwoods, and non-wood stuffs, respectively. Analyses of their chemical compounds and proximate contents were carried out. Additionally, nano scale scrutiny of the lignocellulosic biomass was also conducted using the nano capable instruments, which consisted of SEM, EDS, XRD, FTIR, and DSC. Results revealed that pine wood had the most potential to produce porous carbon. Morphologically, pine wood afforded the best permeability, whereby at the structure of monoclinic cellulose crystals, there were cellulose-I(alpha) structures, which contained less cellulose-I(beta) structures. Furthermore, pine wood exhibited greater volatile matter content, as confirmed through the FTIR, which greatly assisted the forming of porosity inside its corresponding carbon.


Characteristic; Biomass; Pinus merkusii; Acacia mangium; Candlenut shell; Porous carbon

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Welcome to BioResources! This online, peer-reviewed journal is devoted to the science and engineering of biomaterials and chemicals from lignocellulosic sources for new end uses and new capabilities. The editors of BioResources would be very happy to assist you during the process of submitting or reviewing articles. Please note that logging in is required in order to submit or review articles. Martin A. Hubbe, (919) 513-3022,; Lucian A. Lucia, (919) 515-7707, URLs:; ISSN: 1930-2126