Characterization of Merbau Extractives as a Potential Wood-Impregnating Material

Jamaludin Malik, Adi Santoso, Yan Mulyana, Barbara Ozarska


This study aimed to investigate the major content of merbau extractives (ME) and their potential use as an impregnating material for low-quality timber. Extraction was done by maceration with ethanol, ethyl-acetate, and hot-water. Physico-chemical, phyto-chemical, UV-visible, and infrared spectroscopy, as well as py-GCMS analysis were then performed on dried extract. The results showed that organic solvent extractions resulted in much higher yields, by 12.50% than that of hot water (1.10%). The merbau extractives liquid obtained had a low acidity, with a pH ranging from 5 to 6, which is typical of phenolic compounds. Flavonoids and phenolics were found as the major compounds. UV-vis spectra showed that ME (λ=279 nm) consists of conjugated or aromatic systems, similar to standard resorcinol, which was used as the reference (λ=274 nm). The FTIR spectra showed the absorption bands at 3369 cm-1 that represent the functional group of hydroxyl (OH) bonds, and 1619 and 1510 cm-1, representing the aromatic ring (C=C), which could be associated with resorcinol. The Py-GCMS showed that ME is predominated by resorcinol (C6H6O2) with a 79% concentration. The ME could be potentially used for producing phenolic/resorcinolic resin through polymerization, which could be applied for wood impregnation.


Major content; Merbau extractives; Density; Phenolic compound; UV-vis; FTIR; Py-GCMS; Resorcinolic resin

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