Batch and Fixed Bed Adsorption of Pb(II) from Aqueous Solution using EDTA Modified Activated Carbon Derived from Palm Kernel Shell

Aloysius Akaangee Pam, Abdul Halim Abdullah, Yen Ping Tan, Zulkarnain Zainal


Activated carbons were synthesized by thermochemical treatment of palm kernel shells (AC-PKS) and modified with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (AC-EDTA). The developed products were characterized by the surface area, porosity, and pH of point zero charge and were used for removal of Pb(II) ions from aqueous solution. The AC-PKS exhibited higher BET surface area (1559.9 m2/g) than the AC-EDTA (1100.7 m2/g). The influence of solution pH, adsorbent dose, initial Pb(II) ion concentration, and temperature on the removal of Pb(II) ions were examined and optimized. The adsorption of Pb(II) on AC-PKS and AC-EDTA fitted the pseudo-second-order kinetics model and the Langmuir model isotherm, respectively. The optimum conditions for sorption of Pb(II) were at the initial Pb(II) concentration of 150 mg/L, dosage 0.35 g (AC-PKS) and 0.25 g (AC-EDTA), and pH 4. Thermodynamic studies showed that the adsorption process was spontaneous and endothermic. The AC-PKS and AC-EDTA both demonstrated high Qmax of 80.6 mg/g and 104 mg/g, respectively, for Pb(II) adsorption. The adsorption data also fitted the Thomas fixed-bed adsorption model.


Activated carbon; Activation; Palm kernel shell; Characterization; Breakthrough time

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