Performance Study of Dragon Fruit Foliage as a Plant-based Coagulant for Treatment of Palm Oil Mill Effluent from Three-phase Decanters

Ayub Md Som, Abdull Fattah Abd Wahab


This study focused on the performance of dragon fruit foliage as a natural, plant-based coagulant to replace chemical coagulants for the treatment of three-phase decanter palm oil mill effluent (POME). Palm oil mill effluent is a high strength wastewater with high chemical oxygen demand (COD), suspended solids (SS), and turbidity as compared to other sources of POME in mills. The first objective of this study was to determine the optimum operating conditions of the coagulation-flocculation process using the plant-based coagulant in terms of pH and dosage. The second objective was to measure the percentage removal of COD, SS, and turbidity using the coagulant to treat the POME. The pH values and dosages used in the coagulation-flocculation process were in the range of two to ten and 300 mg/L to 800 mg/L, respectively. This study revealed that the optimum percentage removals of COD, SS, and turbidity were 48.7%, 98.8%, and 99.2%, respectively, at the best operating conditions of pH 2 and a coagulant dosage of 300 mg/L. In conclusion, the dragon fruit foliage, plant-based coagulant was found to have potential and could be used in the pretreatment stages to substitute chemical coagulants for the treatment of POME.


Natural coagulant; Plant-based coagulant; Dragon fruit foliage; Coagulation-flocculation; POME treatment; Three-phase decanter

Full Text:


Welcome to BioResources! This online, peer-reviewed journal is devoted to the science and engineering of biomaterials and chemicals from lignocellulosic sources for new end uses and new capabilities. The editors of BioResources would be very happy to assist you during the process of submitting or reviewing articles. Please note that logging in is required in order to submit or review articles. Martin A. Hubbe, (919) 513-3022,; Lucian A. Lucia, (919) 515-7707, URLs:; ISSN: 1930-2126