The Effects of Syringaldehyde and Vanillin on Butyric Acid Production by Fermentation Using Clostridium tyrobutyricum

Ying Liu, Yingxi Geng, Quan Zhou, Wenqiao Yuan


Butyric acid is a valuable chemical that has various applications in the chemical, pharmaceutical, food, and biofuel industries. Its bio-fermentation from lignocellulosic materials may be affected by some unwanted substrates that are generated during biomass pretreatment processes. In the present study, the potential inhibitory effects of two phenolic aldehydes (syringaldehyde and vanillin) on butyric acid fermentation by Clostridium tyrobutyricum were evaluated. The toxicity of syringaldehyde and vanillin on cell growth, xylose consumption, and butyric acid production was dosage-dependent. The butyric acid productivity decreased significantly with increasing concentrations of syringaldehyde and vanillin. C. tyrobutyricum demonstrated a broad tolerance to both syringaldehyde and vanillin and only moderate reductions in the maximum cell density were observed with up to 2.4 g L-1 of syringaldehyde or vanillin in the medium. Both syringaldehyde and vanillin were assimilated by C. tyrobutyricum, and the metabolite products from vanillin caused considerable inhibition of the fermentation.


Butyric acid; Clostridium tyrobutyricum; Inhibitors; Lignocellulosic hydrolysate; Syringaldehyde; Vanillin

Full Text:


Welcome to BioResources! This online, peer-reviewed journal is devoted to the science and engineering of biomaterials and chemicals from lignocellulosic sources for new end uses and new capabilities. The editors of BioResources would be very happy to assist you during the process of submitting or reviewing articles. Please note that logging in is required in order to submit or review articles. Martin A. Hubbe, (919) 513-3022,; Lucian A. Lucia, (919) 515-7707, URLs:; ISSN: 1930-2126