Isolation and Characterization of Cellulose Nanocrystals Created from Recycled Laser Printed Paper

Rogelio Ramírez Casillas, Karen Fátima Báez Rodríguez, Ricardo Herbe Cruz-Estrada, Florentina Dávalos-Olivares, Fernando Navarro-Arzate, Kestur Gundappa Satyanarayana


This article presents the development of a method to prepare nanocrystalline cellulose (NCCs) from laser-printed waste paper using factorial design 23 experiments by controlled acid hydrolysis of the waste paper. The method applies high gain ultrasound and subsequent flotation, washing, and bleaching stages. Characterization of the raw material, prepared pulp, test sheets, and NCCs is presented. Optimum conditions to obtain high quality NCCs were found to be 65% acid, for 40 min time of treatment, and residual load in the range of 130 to 570 mmol/kg of NCCs. The obtained NCCs were 80 to 700 nm long depending on the acid hydrolysis conditions. They exhibited high values of whiteness (90.3% Elrepho), -cellulose contents (95%), degree of polymerization (731), viscosity (9.59 cP), and chemical compositions similar to that of Whatman paper.


Laser printing; Waste paper; Environmental safety; Acid hydrolysis; Cellulose nanocrystals

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Welcome to BioResources! This online, peer-reviewed journal is devoted to the science and engineering of biomaterials and chemicals from lignocellulosic sources for new end uses and new capabilities. The editors of BioResources would be very happy to assist you during the process of submitting or reviewing articles. Please note that logging in is required in order to submit or review articles. Martin A. Hubbe, (919) 513-3022,; Lucian A. Lucia, (919) 515-7707, URLs:; ISSN: 1930-2126