Response Surface Optimisation of Enzymatically Hydrolysed and Dilute Acid Pretreated Oil Palm Trunk Bagasse for Succinic Acid Production

Nurul Adela Bukhari, Jamaliah Md Jahim, Soh Kheang Loh, Abu Bakar Nasrin, Abdullah Amru Indera Luthfi


The exploitation of agroindustrial lignocellulose, such as oil palm trunk bagasse (OPTB), as a raw material in the production of succinic acid (SA) may serve as an effective strategy to propel the bio-based industry. This study aimed to optimise the recovery of fermentable sugar, i.e., glucose, from enzymatic hydrolysis of the dilute acid pretreated OPTB (DA-OPTB). The dilute acid pretreatment used in this study was able to remove 59.5% of hemicellulose and 13.3% of lignin. Response surface methodology (RSM) based on central composite design (CCD) was then applied to investigate four independent variables – enzyme loading (10 to 50 U/g), agitation speed (50 to 250 rpm), reaction time (0 to 96 h), and surfactant concentration (0.025 to 0.125%, v/v). The experimental glucose concentration of 21.7 g/L was in good agreement with the RSM-predicted value of 20.5 g/L. Among the parameters investigated, supplementation of a surfactant during enzymatic hydrolysis was significant in influencing glucose recovery, while the extent of the agitation speed was the least influential. The maximum recovered glucose was estimated at 217 g per kg of raw OPTB, with 7.3 g/L of SA attainable from the fermented DA-OPTB hydrolysate using Actinobacillus succinogenes 130Z. The results demonstrated that OPTB can be practically utilised in the economical production of high value-added SA.


Oil palm biomass; Lignocellulose; Fermentable sugar; Central composite design; Succinic acid

Full Text:


Welcome to BioResources! This online, peer-reviewed journal is devoted to the science and engineering of biomaterials and chemicals from lignocellulosic sources for new end uses and new capabilities. The editors of BioResources would be very happy to assist you during the process of submitting or reviewing articles. Please note that logging in is required in order to submit or review articles. Martin A. Hubbe, (919) 513-3022,; Lucian A. Lucia, (919) 515-7707, URLs:; ISSN: 1930-2126