Esterification of Levulinic Acid into Ethyl Levulinate Catalyzed by Sulfonated Bagasse-carbonized Solid Acid

Chenlu Liu, Kaili Zhang, Ying Liu, Shubin Wu

Abstract


A sulfonic carbon-based catalyst (C-SO3H) was successfully prepared by sulfonating incompletely carbonized sugarcane bagasse. The optimized catalyst of high activity in the esterification of levulinic acid (LA) with ethanol was produced under sulfonation at 150 °C for 15 h with a 75 mL/g sulfonation ratio. The prepared catalysts were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and elemental analysis (EA). The bagasse-carbonized catalyst was porous, and the porous structure remained unchanged after sulfonation treatment. Moreover, the introduced acidic group was the catalytic center. A high yield of ethyl levulinate (ELA) of 88.2% was obtained at 120 °C for 9 h. The sulfonic carbon-based catalyst could be reused at least five times and still exhibited great stability. The application of the sulfonic carbon-based catalyst was not only the effective use of biomass resources

Keywords


Sugarcane bagasse; Sulfonation; Levulinic acid; Esterification

Full Text:

PDF


Welcome to BioResources! This online, peer-reviewed journal is devoted to the science and engineering of biomaterials and chemicals from lignocellulosic sources for new end uses and new capabilities. The editors of BioResources would be very happy to assist you during the process of submitting or reviewing articles. Please note that logging in is required in order to submit or review articles. Martin A. Hubbe, (919) 513-3022, hubbe@ncsu.edu; Lucian A. Lucia, (919) 515-7707, lucia-bioresources@ncsu.edu URLs: bioresourcesjournal.com; http://ncsu.edu/bioresources ISSN: 1930-2126