Starch Nanocomposites Reinforced with TEMPO-Oxidized Cellulose Nanofibrils derived from Bamboo Holocellulose

Sasiprapa Pitiphatharaworachot, Korawit Chitbanyong, Sarawood Sungkaew, Sawitree Pisutpiched, Somwang Khantayanuwong, Buapan Puangsin

Abstract


Bamboo holocellulose was oxidized by 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl radical (TEMPO) in water at pH 10 with an addition of 7.5 mmol g-1 of NaClO for 2 h. After oxidation, the weight recovery ratio of TEMPO-oxidized bamboo holocellulose (TOBH) was 73% with a carboxylate content of 0.65 mmol g-1. The water-insoluble TOBH was converted to an aqueous dispersion of bamboo TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibrils (TOBCN) through mechanical defibrillation and centrifugation, with the nanofibrillation yield of around 90%. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) indicated that the widths of TOBCN were estimated to be between 3 and 4 nm and lengths of several micrometers. The TOBCN dispersions had high light-transparencies of 99% at a wavelength of 600 nm. These nanofibrils were used as reinforcing nanoparticles in thermoplastic starch (TPS) films. The TOBCN dispersions were added in dosages of 0, 0.3, 0.6, 0.9, 1.2, and 1.5 wt%. Glycerol was used as a plasticizer. Nanocomposite films were prepared through a solution casting process. The TOBCN/TPS nanocomposite films exhibited high optical transparencies and their tensile strength, Young’s modulus, elongation around failure, and work to cause a fracture increased, compared to the TPS films without TOBCN. The presence of TOBCNs, at 1.5 wt%, improved moisture resistance.

Keywords


2,2,6,6-Tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO); Bamboo holocellulose; Oxidation; Cellulose nanofibrils

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