Prospects for the Preparation of Paper Money from Cotton Fibers and Bleached Softwood Kraft Pulp Fibers with Nanofibrillated Cellulose

Ghaffar Fathi, Jafar Ebrahimpour Kasmani


Paper money passes through various environments during its life span, causing its physical, chemical, and optical properties to change. More than 90% of paper money worldwide is composed of natural cotton fiber. The present study examined the properties of paper money made of bleached softwood kraft fibers or its blends with cotton fibers, where nanofibrilled cellulose was employed as a strengthening agent. Nano-cellulose was added at 4 levels: 0, 0.3, 0.6, and 0.9%. Handsheets with a basis weight of 90 g·m-1 were made by mixing the pulp furnish with nano-cellulose in the identified percentages, and the physical and mechanical properties of the handsheets were tested. By increasing the amount of nano-cellulose up to 0.9% in cotton pulp, the tensile strength, bursting resistance, tear resistance, and resistance to folding endurance were increased by 33, 33.5, 6.6, and 63.2%, respectively, compared with the control sample. The addition of nano-cellulose up to 0.9% in cotton pulp increased the surface smoothness by up to 13.5% compared with the control sample, and porosity and water absorbance decreased by 16.6 and 4%, respectively, in comparison with the control sample. By increasing nano-cellulose up to 0.9% in cotton pulp, the opacity, brightness, and whiteness were decreased by 0.1, 1, and 4%, respectively. The SEM results indicated that the increased nano-cellulose percentage led to decreased porosity.


Nano-cellulose; Chemical pulp; Paper money; Cotton; Mechanical properties; Optical properties; SEM

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