Modification of Scots Pine with Activated Glucose and Citric Acid: Physical and Mechanical Properties

Wenjun Guo, Zefang Xiao, Maximilian Wentzel, Lukas Emmerich, Yanjun Xie, Holger Militz


An eco-friendly agent mainly consisting of activated glucose (AG) and citric acid (CA) was investigated for its potential wood modification applications. Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) sapwood was treated with AG and CA both individually and in combination. The treatments with the combined agent resulted in an increase in the weight percent gain and decrease in the leaching ratio, which suggested a synergy between the two components for their fixation in wood. The dynamic vapor sorption behavior indicated an increased sorption at a higher AG concentration. Compared with the AG treatment, the CA treatment more effectively improved the dimensional stability of the wood. The modulus of elasticity was not influenced by the treatments, and the modulus of rupture was slightly reduced. Incorporation of AG in the CA inhibited the decrease in impact strength of wood compared to treatment with CA alone, which was a result of reduced crosslinking from the CA within the wood matrix. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy revealed an enhanced absorbance, indicating development of ester bonds due to the treatment.


Activated glucose; Citric acid; Physical and mechanical properties; Wood modification; FTIR

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