European Pallets Fabricated with Composite Wood Blocks from Tropical Species Reinforced with Nanocrystalline Cellulose: Effects on the Properties of Blocks and Static Flexure of the Pallet

Priscilla Rigg-Aguilar, Roger Moya, José Vega-Baudrit, Angel Navarro-Mora, Johana Gaitan-Alvarez


The objective of this study was to characterize the performance of composite wood blocks (CWB) by testing internal bonding, nail extraction resistance, and water absorption. The CWB were glued with two wood adhesives, polyvinyl acetate (PVAc), and urea formaldehyde (UF), modified with 1% nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC). Three tropical species were employed: Vochysia ferruginea, Cordia alliodora, and Gmelina arborea. In addition, the original European pallet in the static flexure test was evaluated. The results showed that the internal bonding relative to solid wood blocks (SWB) increased with both adhesives. Meanwhile, the CWB of V. ferruginea with UF and C. alliodora with PVAc showed the greatest resistance to nail extraction, while in G. arborea, the NCC increased the resistance to nail extraction. The CWB with modified adhesives absorbed more moisture, particularly with PVAc, compared with the SWB. In static flexure tests of the pallets fabricated with CWB, the load at the limit of proportionality and the maximum load increased, while deflections were lower, compared with SWB. The results showed the potential of utilizing NCC in CWB fabricated with tropical species.


Nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC); Adhesives; Wood; Composite blocks; Pallets

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