Activity of Plant Extracts/Essential Oils Against Three Plant Pathogenic Fungi and Mosquito Larvae: GC/MS Analysis of Bioactive Compounds

Younis K. Hamad, Yasser Abobakr, Mohamed Z. M. Salem, Hayssam M. Ali, Ali S. Al-Sarar, Ali A. Al-Zabib

Abstract


Certain natural products extracted from different parts of medicinal and aromatic plants were examined for their antifungal activity against three plant pathogenic fungi, Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizoctonia solani, and Alternaria solani, and insecticidal activity against mosquito larvae (Culex pipiens). Acetone extract of Tectona grandis showed the highest antifungal activity against R. solani and A. solani with EC50 values of 118 and 294 μg/mL, respectively. The highest larvicidal activity was displayed by the essential oils of Ocimum basilicum and Eucalyptus gomphocephala with LC50 value of 22, and 30 mg/L, respectively. By gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis 3-allylguaiacol (65.8%) and eugenol acetate (46.6%) were the main compounds in Syzygium aromaticum methanolic extract and essential oil, respectively. The main compound in T. grandis acetone extract was cyclohexylpentyl oxalate (8.7%); its water extract contained (E)-4,4-dimethyl-2-pentene (51.1%); E. gomphocephala branch oil contained p-cymene (28.8%); Euphorbia paralias leaf extract contained 1βH-romneine (26.3%); the seed extract contained α-linolenic acid, TMS (15.2%); Punica granatum extract contained furfural (32.1%); and O. basilicum essential oil contained estragole (65.9%). Thus, extracts from the tested plants can be used as natural biofungicides to manage diseases caused by F. oxysporum, R. solani, and A. solani. Additionally, these extracts show potential la rvicide activities against mosquito larvae.

Keywords


Antifungal activity; Larvicidal activity; Pathogenic fungi Natural extract; Essential oils

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