Soda-Anthraquinone Pulping Optimization of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch

Nurul Husna Mohd Hassan, Noorshashillawati Azura Mohammad, Mazlan Ibrahim, Nor Yuziah Mohd Yunus, Siti Noorbaini Sarmin


The influence of soda-anthraquinone (AQ) pulping conditions on paper properties of oil palm empty fruit bunches was studied using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) based on Central Composite Design (CCD). The alkali charge, NaOH (A), pulping temperature (T), and pulping time (t) ranged between 20 and 30%, 160 and 180 °C, and 60 and 120 minutes, respectively. The mechanical properties evaluated for the handsheets produced were the tensile index, tearing index, bursting index, folding endurance, zero-span tensile strength, and the optical properties (brightness and opacity). The effects of soda-AQ pulping conditions on oil palm empty fruit bunch paper were elucidated by the regression models obtained. The optimum pulping condition were at 27.3% alkali charge, 160 °C, and 60 min that produced paper properties with 26.8 N.m/g tensile index, 7.95 mN.m2/g tearing index, 5.32 kPa.m2/g bursting index, 1.70 log10 folding endurance, 46.2 N zero-span tensile strength, 51.8% brightness, and 95.8% opacity.


Empty fruit bunch (EFB); Soda-AQ pulping; Mechanical paper properties; Optical paper properties; Response surface methodology (RSM)

Full Text:


Welcome to BioResources! This online, peer-reviewed journal is devoted to the science and engineering of biomaterials and chemicals from lignocellulosic sources for new end uses and new capabilities. The editors of BioResources would be very happy to assist you during the process of submitting or reviewing articles. Please note that logging in is required in order to submit or review articles. Martin A. Hubbe, (919) 513-3022,; Lucian A. Lucia, (919) 515-7707, URLs:; ISSN: 1930-2126