Thermal Influence on the Mechanical Properties of Cardboard during an Ultrasonic-Assisted Embossing Process

Ulrike Kaeppeler, Jennes Hünniger, André Hofmann, Andrea Berlich, Lutz Engisch

Abstract


During the embossing process, a fiber sandwich is compressed between embossing tools. The use of ultrasound causes a short-term increase in the material temperature in addition to causing plastic deformation. The combination of the material compression and an increase in material temperature leads to structural changes, which can be observed by the change in mechanical properties of the cardboard. This work investigated the influence of an ultrasonically induced temperature increase on the structural changes of cardboard. Using three-parameter combinations, different temperature levels were achieved with a material densification of less than 5%. Subsequently, the samples were subjected to selected physical and visual analyses to characterize the change in the fiber structure. With the increase of 124 ºC material temperature there was a decrease of about 15% in the splitting resistance and 10% in the bending stiffness.

Keywords


Heat; Paper; Cardboard; Bending stiffness; Compressibility; Tensile strength; Sample thickness; Visual analysis; Roughness; Mechanical properties; Ultrasound; Embossing

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