The Effect of Nanocellulose Addition to Phenol-formaldehyde Adhesive in Water-resistant Plywood Manufacturing

Jakub Kawalerczyk, Dorota Dziurka, Radosław Mirski, Joanna Siuda, Kinga Szentner


This study examined the effect of applying cellulose nanoparticles as a filling material for phenol-formaldehyde (PF) resin in the process of manufacturing water-resistant plywood. Based on investigations that concerned the rheological behavior of resin mixture containing various amounts of nanofiller, the modification of resin resulted in a major increase of viscosity. Although Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy did not fully explain the effect of modification on the chemical structure of the adhesive, there was a noticeable improvement in the morphology of cured nanocellulose-reinforced resin. Based on the bonding quality results, the optimum amount of nanocellulose was 3 PBW (parts by weight) per 100 PBW of resin and it allowed the achievement of a notable increase in shear strength values. Moreover, introduction of cellulosic nanoparticles had a positive effect on mechanical properties such as bending strength and modulus of elasticity. In summary, the research showed that it is possible to apply nanocellulose as a modifier for the adhesives in the process of manufacturing water-resistant plywood.


Phenol-formaldehyde adhesive; Nanocellulose; NCC; Plywood; Filler; Resin

Full Text:


Welcome to BioResources! This online, peer-reviewed journal is devoted to the science and engineering of biomaterials and chemicals from lignocellulosic sources for new end uses and new capabilities. The editors of BioResources would be very happy to assist you during the process of submitting or reviewing articles. Please note that logging in is required in order to submit or review articles. Martin A. Hubbe, (919) 513-3022,; Lucian A. Lucia, (919) 515-7707, URLs:; ISSN: 1930-2126