Physical and Mechanical Properties of Soy-lignin Bonded Rhizophora spp. Particleboard as a Tissue-equivalent Phantom Material

Siti Hajar Zuber, Nurul Ab Aziz Hashikin, Mohd Fahmi Mohd Yusof, Rokiah Hashim


Experimental binderless and adhesive-bonded particleboards were made from three different sample sizes, 0 to 103 µm, 104 to 210 µm, and 211 to 500 µm from Rhizophora spp. wood trunk at 1.0 gcm-3. The objective was to evaluate the physical and mechanical properties of the particleboards. The binderless and soy-lignin bonded particleboards were fabricated and studied based on the density, internal bonding, modulus of rupture, water absorption, and thickness swelling. Microstructure study using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and elemental analysis by carbon hydrogen nitrogen (CHN) analyser were also performed. Particleboards with adhesives improved the internal bond strength. Smaller particle sizes also were shown to be able to improve the thickness swelling outcomes, with lower hygroscopic properties. The SEM images showed that smaller particle size allowed better bonding with adhesives and provided superior strength in the fabrication of tissue equivalent phantom material. The CHN ratio demonstrated by soy flour and lignin revealed no major difference when compared with the Rhizophora spp. samples, showing basic chemical composition of natural adhesives, which was crucial in the fabrication of tissue-mimicking phantom. The study revealed the potential of soy flour and lignin as adhesives for the fabrication of Rhizophora spp. particleboard as a tissue equivalent phantom material.


Physical properties; Mechanical properties; Fabrication; Rhizophora spp.

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