Emissions from the Fused Filament Fabrication 3D Printing with Lignocellulose/Polylactic Acid Filament

Qianqian Zhu, Qian Yao, Jun Liu, Jianzhong Sun, Qianqian Wang


The application of Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF) 3D printing for offices, educational institutions, and small prototyping businesses has recently attracted increased attention. Thermal-fused filaments could emit potentially hazardous atmospheric particulate matter (PM) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). This study evaluated the particle and VOCs emission characteristics of an FFF 3D printer with lignocellulose/polylactic acid (PLA) filament to reduce emissions. The PM2.5, PM0.2-10, and VOCs emission behaviors of the FFF 3D printer with a lignocellulose/PLA filament were investigated in a test chamber under different printing conditions. Pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) was applied to analyze the formation of VOCs from lignocellulose/PLA filaments. Analysis indicated that particle formation dominated the heating process, whereas VOCs were mainly released during the printing process. The results further showed that printing at higher relative humidity and high filament feeding temperatures triggered higher VOCs emissions. In addition, high humidity facilitated particle agglomeration and reduced PM concentration. Printing at higher filament feeding temperatures also resulted in high particle emissions. Finally, Py-GC/MS analysis determined the decomposition products of the lignocellulose/PLA filament corresponding to the main ingredients of VOCs.


3D printing; Lignocellulose filament; Particulate matter; Volatile organic compounds

Full Text:


Welcome to BioResources! This online, peer-reviewed journal is devoted to the science and engineering of biomaterials and chemicals from lignocellulosic sources for new end uses and new capabilities. The editors of BioResources would be very happy to assist you during the process of submitting or reviewing articles. Please note that logging in is required in order to submit or review articles. Martin A. Hubbe, (919) 513-3022, hubbe@ncsu.edu; Lucian A. Lucia, (919) 515-7707, lucia-bioresources@ncsu.edu URLs: bioresourcesjournal.com; http://ncsu.edu/bioresources ISSN: 1930-2126