Preparation of an Amphoteric Lignin Copolymer and Its Value in the Papermaking Industry

Zhongming Liu, Gao Chao, Linlin Chen, Xinyu Dong, Fangong Kong, Shoujuan Wang, Magdi E. Gibrill, Lucian Lucia, Pedram Fatehi


Lignin biomass is an important renewable woody material that can be converted into high value-added products through physical and chemical reactions, such as paper strength additives. In this study, a cationic methacryloyloxyethyl trimethylammonium chloride monomer (DMC) and anionic acrylic monomer (AA) were grafted onto softwood kraft lignin through free radical polymerization to prepare an amphoteric lignin copolymer. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H NMR), elemental analysis, and charge density analysis methods confirmed that the anionic and cationic monomers were successfully grafted onto the lignin. The grafting ratios of AA and DMC monomer in the lignin-DMC-AA copolymer were 62.4% and 51.3%, respectively. The application of lignin-DMC-AA copolymer as a paper additive for enhancing the physical properties of paper sheets was studied in the papermaking industry. The results indicated that the copolymer had a maximum increase in physical strength at around 2 wt% lignin-DMC-AA. The amount absorbed on the fibers was 18.5 mg/g, and the retention of the lignin-DMC-AA copolymer was over 90%.


Softwood kraft lignin; Amphoteric lignin copolymer; Paper additive; Physical properties

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Welcome to BioResources! This online, peer-reviewed journal is devoted to the science and engineering of biomaterials and chemicals from lignocellulosic sources for new end uses and new capabilities. The editors of BioResources would be very happy to assist you during the process of submitting or reviewing articles. Please note that logging in is required in order to submit or review articles. Martin A. Hubbe, (919) 513-3022,; Lucian A. Lucia, (919) 515-7707, URLs:; ISSN: 1930-2126